Cobol

Cobol programs have multiple ways to make links to other programs, copybooks, datasets, etc. In addition, depending on the compiler and the Cobol flavor (Ansi, Tandem, OpenVMS…), the list of statements may change. BluInsights dependencies engine handles a large list of statements (see below) and can rapidly be extended to support new ones.

 

Direct dependency

++INCLUDE / -INC / ?SOURCE

The call on ++INCLUDE / -INC and ?SOURCE implies dependencies on copybook files :

  • ++INCLUDE / -INC / ?SOURCE ‘COPYBOOK
  • ++INCLUDE / -INC / ?SOURCE “COPYBOOK
  • ++INCLUDE / -INC / ?SOURCE COPYBOOK`

CALL / CALL PROC / CALL PROCEDURE​

The list below uses only the CALL keywords but the dependencies will be the same with CALL PROC or CALL PROCEDURE. We expect to find dependencies of any extension :

  • CALL 'PROGRAM' implies a dependency on a file named “PROGRAM”
  • CALL "PROGRAM" implies a dependency on a file named “PROGRAM”
  • CALL PROGRAM_VARimplies a dynamic dependency involving PROGRAM_VAR variable, refer to the dedicated paragraph.

COPY/+COPY/$COPY

The call on COPY+COPY or $COPY implies dependencies on copybook files :

  • COPY 'COPYBOOK' implies a dependency on a copybook file named “COPYBOOK”
  • COPY 'folder:COBCOP.cobcop' implies a dependency on a cobcop file named “COBCOP”. The .cobcop in the string is optional.
  • COPY "COPYBOOK" implies a dependency on a copybook file named “COPYBOOK”
  • COPY "folder:COBCOP.cobcop" implies a dependency on a cobcop file named “COBCOP”. The .cobcop in the string is optional.
  • COPY COPYBOOK implies a dependency on a copybook file named “COPYBOOK”
Ignored prefixes and suffixes
  • prefixes
    • DD-
    • DDS-
    • DDR-
    • DDSR-
  • suffixes
    • -O
    • -I
    • -I-O
    • -INDICATORS

For example, DDR-COPY1-I-INDICATOR is transformed into COPY1.

ALL-FORMATS

Copybook named ALL-FORMATS will not made a dependency.

EXEC CICS

EXEC CICS … DATASET
  • EXEC CICS exec-cics-verb DATASET(“file-definition-name”) ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on a “CICS_FILE” or “DATASET” object named “file-definition-name”
  • EXEC CICS exec-cics-verb DATASET('file-definition-name') ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on a “CICS_FILE” or “DATASET” object named “file-definition-name”
  • EXEC CICS exec-cics-verb DATASET(variable-name) ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on all “CICS_FILE” or “DATASET” objects referenced by the variable “variable-name”

“exec-cics-verb” can be one of the following

  • DELETE: delete a record that is present in a file
  • ENDBR: terminate the browse
  • READ: read a record
  • READNEXT: read next record
  • READPREV: read the previous record
  • RESETBR: reset record browser
  • REWRITE: rewrite the record
  • STARTBR: start to browse
  • WRITE: write a record
  • UNLOCK: release the exclusive control required by a READ or an UPDATE
Refer to the paragraph dedicated to file definitions.
EXEC CICS … FILE
  • EXEC CICS exec-cics-verb FILE(“file-definition-name”) ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on a “CICS_FILE” object named “file-definition-name”
  • EXEC CICS exec-cics-verb FILE('file-definition-name') ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on a “CICS_FILE” object named “file-definition-name”
  • EXEC CICS exec-cics-verb FILE(variable-name) ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on all “CICS_FILE” objects referenced by the variable “variable-name”

“exec-cics-verb” can be one of the following

  • DELETE: delete a record that is present in a file
  • ENDBR: terminate the browse
  • READ: read a record
  • READNEXT: read next record
  • READPREV: read the previous record
  • RESETBR: reset record browser
  • REWRITE: rewrite the record
  • STARTBR: start to browse
  • WRITE: write a record
  • UNLOCK: release the exclusive control required by a READ or an UPDATE

We support several calls on LINK PROGRAM, the call itself could be on multiple lines or not. We expect to find dependencies of any extension :

  • EXEC CICS LINK / LOAD / XCTL PROGRAM(“PROGRAM”) ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on a file named “PROGRAM”
  • EXEC CICS LINK / LOAD / XCTL PROGRAM('PROGRAM') ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on a file named “PROGRAM”
  • EXEC CICS LINK / LOAD / XCTL PROGRAM(PROGRAM_VAR) ... END-EXEC implies a dynamic dependency involving PROGRAM_VAR variable, refer to the dedicated paragraph.
RECEIVE MAP

We support several calls on RECEIVE MAP, the call itself could be on multiple lines or not. We expect to find dependencies of any extension but .CBL, .COB and .CPY :

  • EXEC CICS RECEIVE MAP(“MAP”) ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on a file named “MAP”
  • EXEC CICS RECEIVE MAP('MAP') ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on a file named “MAP”
  • EXEC CICS RECEIVE MAP(MAP_VAR) ... END-EXEC implies a dynamic dependency involving MAP_VAR variable, refer to the dedicated paragraph.
RECEIVE MAPSET

We support several calls on RECEIVE MAPSET, the call itself could be on multiple lines or not. We expect to find dependencies of any extension but .CBL, .COB and .CPY :

  • EXEC CICS RECEIVE MAPSET(“MAPSET”) ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on a file named “MAPSET”
  • EXEC CICS RECEIVE MAPSET('MAPSET') ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on a file named “MAPSET”
  • EXEC CICS RECEIVE MAPSET(MAPSET_VAR) ... END-EXEC implies a dynamic dependency involving MAPSET_VAR variable, refer to the dedicated paragraph.
SEND MAP

We support several calls on SEND MAP, the call itself could be on multiple lines or not. We expect to find dependencies of any extension but .CBL, .COB and .CPY :

  • EXEC CICS SEND MAP(“MAP”) ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on a file named “MAP”
  • EXEC CICS SEND MAP('MAP') ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on a file named “MAP”
  • EXEC CICS SEND MAP(MAP_VAR) ... END-EXEC implies a dynamic dependency involving MAP_VAR variable, refer to the dedicated paragraph.
SEND MAPSET

We support several calls on SEND MAPSET, the call itself could be on multiple lines or not. We expect to find dependencies of any extension but .CBL, .COB and .CPY :

  • EXEC CICS SEND MAPSET(“MAPSET”) ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on a file named “MAPSET”
  • EXEC CICS SEND MAPSET('MAPSET') ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on a file named “MAPSET”
  • EXEC CICS SEND MAPSET(MAPSET_VAR) ... END-EXEC implies a dynamic dependency involving MAPSET_VAR variable, refer to the dedicated paragraph.
Refer to the paragraph dedicated to file definitions.
EXEC CICS … TRANSID
  • EXEC CICS exec-cics-verb TRANSID(“transaction-name”) ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on a “TRANSACTION” object named “transaction-name”
  • EXEC CICS exec-cics-verb TRANSID('transaction-name'”) ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on a “TRANSACTION” object named “transaction-name”
  • EXEC CICS exec-cics-verb TRANSID(variable-name) ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on all “TRANSACTION” objects referenced by the variable “variable-name”

“exec-cics-verb” can be one of the following

  • START: start transaction
  • RETURN: return transaction

EXEC SQL

We support several calls on EXEC SQL, the call itself could be on multiple lines or not. We expect to find the dependencies of any extension. The dependencies are detected for the following operations in the request :

  • EXEC SQL ... FROM TABLE1, TABLE2 ... END-EXEC where TABLE1 and TABLE2 are files corresponding to SQL tables. TABLE2 is optional and if there are only two tables, commas aren’t needed.
  • EXEC SQL ... INSERT INTO TABLE1 ... END-EXEC where TABLE1 is a file corresponding to a SQL table.
  • EXEC SQL ... JOIN TABLE1 T1 ON ... END-EXEC where TABLE1 is a file corresponding to a SQL table and T1 is an optional alias for TABLE1 used in the rest of the request.
  • EXEC SQL ... UPDATE TABLE1 SET ... END-EXEC where TABLE1 is a file corresponding to a SQL table.

EXEC SQL CALL

The call on EXEC SQL CALL implies dependencies on SQL files :

  • EXEC SQL CALL SQLFILE(...) END-EXEC. implies a dependency on a SQL file named “SQLFILE”.

EXEC SQL INCLUDE

The call on EXEC SQL INCLUDE implies dependencies on copybook files :

  • EXEC SQL INCLUDE 'COPYBOOK' ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on a copybook file named “COPYBOOK”
  • EXEC SQL INCLUDE "COPYBOOK" ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on a copybook file named “COPYBOOK”
  • EXEC SQL INCLUDE COPYBOOK ... END-EXEC implies a dependency on a copybook file named “COPYBOOK”

EXEC SQL SOURCE

The call on EXEC SQL SOURCE implies dependencies on copybook files :

  • EXEC SQL SOURCE = 'COPYBOOK' implies a dependency on a copybook file named “COPYBOOK”
  • EXEC SQL SOURCE = "COPYBOOK" implies a dependency on a copybook file named “COPYBOOK”
  • EXEC SQL SOURCE = COPYBOOK implies a dependency on a copybook file named “COPYBOOK”

NNCOPY

The call on NNCOPY can be found in a COBOL comment and implies dependencies on copybook files :

  • *01 NNCOPY COPYBOOK(SEGMENT) implies a dependency on a copybook file named “COPYBOOK”

SELECT … ASSIGN TO

The call on SELECT ... ASSIGN TO implies a dependency on a file and/or an SQL table:

  • SELECT filename ASSIGN TO varname implies a dependency on “filename” that can be a SQL table or a cobol file.
    “filename” can also be a FileDefinition (FD filename) and in that case, “varname’ becomes an alias of “filename”.

SWCOPY

The call on SWCOPY implies dependencies on copybook files :

  • SWCOPY 'COPYBOOK' implies a dependency on a copybook file named “COPYBOOK”
  • SWCOPY "COPYBOOK" implies a dependency on a copybook file named “COPYBOOK”
  • SWCOPY COPYBOOK implies a dependency on a copybook file named “COPYBOOK”

File definition dependencies

File definitions

In Cobol, file definitions are declared into the “FILE SECTION” like

000000 FD file-definition-name
LABEL RECORDS ARE STANDARD.
000000 01 file-definition-record.

A link from the Cobol file to an object named ‘file-definition-name’ typed ‘FILE_DEFINTION’ will be created. ‘file-definition-record’ is an alias of ‘file-definition-name’.

Cobol statements using file definitions

OPEN (INPUT|OUTPUT|EXTEND|I-O) file-definition-name implies a dependency on a “FILE_DEFINITION” object typed “FILE_DEFINTION” and named “file-definition-name”

  • READ file-definition-name implies a dependency on a “FILE_DEFINITION” object named “file-definition-name”
  • WRITE file-definition-record implies a dependency on a “FILE_DEFINITION” aliased object with an alias named “file-definition-record”
  • REWRITE file-definition-record implies a dependency on a “FILE_DEFINITION” aliased object with an alias named “file-definition-record”
  • DELETE file-definition-name implies a dependency on a “FILE_DEFINITION” object named “file-definition-name”
  • START file-definition-name implies a dependency on a “FILE_DEFINITION” object named “file-definition-name”
  • CLOSE file-definition-name implies a dependency on a “FILE_DEFINITION” object named “file-definition-name”

Dynamic dependency

A dynamical dependency is when a dependency target is only known at runtime. In COBOL, the name of the program to call is stored in a variable that is used in some statements seen in the previous paragraph. Static analysis of COBOL source can detect some variable values.

Attribute default value

01 ATTRIBUTE   PIC X(8) VALUE 'PROGRAM '.

This is an initialization of a field named ATTRIBUTE with the value 'PROGRAM '. If ATTRIBUTE is used in a statement implying a dependency, it means that 'PROGRAM ' maybe a program name.

MOVE

MOVE 'PROGRAM' TO ATTRIBUTE ATTRIBUTE2
MOVE ATTRIBUTE TO ATTRIBUTE3

If either ATTRIBUTE, ATTRIBUTE2 or ATTRIBUTE3 is used in a statement implying a dependency, which means that 'PROGRAM' maybe a program name.

Copybook

All default values and MOVE defined in a copybook are reported to any program using this copybook. In addition, any dynamic call found in a copybook will be transformed into a dynamic call from any program using this copybook.